sulla primary sources

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (/ s l /; 138-78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history and became the first man of the Republic to seize power through force.. Sulla had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship.A gifted and innovative general, he achieved . He's remembered best for bringing his soldiers into Rome, the killing of Roman citizens, and his military skill in several areas. A gifted and innovative general, he achieved numerous successes in wars against foreign and domestic opponents. Sulla's First Civil War (88-87 BC) was triggered by an attempt to strip him of the command against Mithridates and saw Sulla become the first Roman to lead an army against the city for four hundred years. [6] He also disbanded his legions and, through these gestures, attempted to show the re-establishment of normal consular government. When it came to hiding his intentions, his mind was incredibly unfathomable, yet with all else he was extremely generous; especially with money. The veto power of the tribunes and their legislating authority were soon reinstated, ironically during the consulships of Pompey and Crassus.[150]. [114], The general feeling in Italy, however, was decidedly anti-Sullan; many people feared Sulla's wrath and still held memories of his extremely unpopular occupation of Rome during his consulship. Guide. Pompey was then dispatched to recover Sicily. Mithridates also would equip Sulla with seventy or eighty ships and pay a war indemnity of two or three thousand talents. Revised on November 11, 2022. No action was taken against the troops nor action taken to relieve Pompey Strabo of command. The Romans neutralised a Pontic charge of scythed chariots before pushing the Pontic phalanx back across the plain. The bubonic plague was the most commonly seen form during the Black Death, with a mortality rate of 30-75% and symptoms including fever of 38 - 41 C (101-105 F), headaches, painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting, and a general feeling of malaise. Throughout the research process, you'll likely use various types of sources. And for his consular colleague, he attempted to transfer to him the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo's army. The Samnite and anti-Sullan commanders were then hunted down as "for all intents and purposes the civil war in Italy was over". [107], Mithridates, still in Asia, was faced with local uprisings against his rule. [70][71] They were designed to regulate Rome's finances, which were in a very sorry state after all the years of continual warfare. Keep in mind as you use this website, the Web is always changing and evolving. They had, however, fallen on hard times. The Roman general and dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 B.C.) He never allowed his debaucheries to interfere with his duties but he devoted all his leisure time to them. An example of the extent of his charming side was that his soldiers would sing a ditty about Sulla's one testicle, although without truth, to which he allowed as being "fond of a jest. They are the most direct evidence of a time or event because they were created by people or things that were there at the time or event. was the first man to use the army to establish a personal autocracy at Rome.. Sulla first came into prominence when he served as quaestor (107-106 B.C.) He attempted to mitigate this by passing laws to limit the actions of generals in their provinces, and although these laws remained in effect well into the imperial period, they did not prevent determined generals, such as Pompey and Julius Caesar, from using their armies for personal ambition against the Senate, a danger of which Sulla was intimately aware. [92] In the summer of 88, he reorganised the administration of the area before unsuccessfully besieging Rhodes. "[147] Plutarch claims he had seen Sulla's personal motto carved on his tomb on the Campus Martius. [111], The peace reached with Mithridates was condemned in ancient times as a betrayal of Roman interests for Sulla's private interest in fighting and winning the coming civil war. [129], Sulla had his stepdaughter Aemilia (daughter of princeps senatus Marcus Aemilius Scaurus) married to Pompey, although she shortly died in childbirth. These sources have not been modified by interpretation and offer original thought or new information. This unusual appointment (used hitherto only in times of extreme danger to the city, such as during the Second Punic War, and then only for 6-month periods) represented an exception to Rome's policy of not giving total power to a single individual. Historian Suetonius records that when agreeing to spare Caesar, Sulla warned those who were pleading his case that he would become a danger to them in the future, saying, "In this Caesar, there are many Mariuses. At the meeting, he took the seat between the Parthian ambassador, Orobazus, and Ariobarzanes, seeking to gain psychological advantage over the Partian envoy by portraying the Parthians and the Cappadocians as equals with Rome as superior. The faculty and students of the Hanover College History Department initiated the Hanover Historical Texts Project in 1995, at a time when few primary sources were available outside of published anthologies. [30] Sulla was popular with the men, charming and benign, he built up a healthy rapport while also winning popularity with other officers, including Marius. Primary sources are available here primarily for use in high-school and university/college courses. 9, The Last Age of the Roman Republic, 146-43 BC. 1963), and Stewart Perowne, Death of the Roman Republic: From 146 B.C. Primary sources can include: Texts of laws and other original documents. Marius and his son, along with some others, escaped to Africa. Newspaper reports, by reporters who witnessed an event or who quote people who did. [116] Advancing on Capua, he met the two consuls of that year Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus and Gaius Norbanus who had dangerously divided their forces. Cinna violently quarrelled with his co-consul, Gnaeus Octavius. [89] After Octavius induced the senate to outlaw Cinna, Cinna suborned the army besieging Nola and induced the Italians again to rise up. Click the title for location and availability information. Although he was able to regain the command, his political setup in Rome collapsed almost as soon as he left Italy, and the war would . You can limit HOLLIS searches to your time period, but sources may be published later, such as a person's diary published posthumously. This mixture was later referred to by Machiavelli in his description of the ideal characteristics of a ruler. [99], Discovering a weak point in the walls and popular discontent with the Athenian tyrant Aristion, Sulla stormed and captured Athens (except the Acropolis) on 1 March 86BC. Sulla was closely associated with Venus,[9] adopting the title Epaphroditos meaning favored of Aphrodite/Venus.[10]. When Scipio refused, Sulla let him go. For list of offices and years, unless otherwise indicated, sfn error: no target: CITEREFKeaveney2006 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBadian2012 (, sfnm error: no target: CITEREFBadian2012 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSeager1994 (, Gabba, E. "Rome and Italy: the social war". Primary sources are "first-hand" information, sources as close as possible to the origin of the information or idea under study. Gnaeus Carbo attempted to lift the Siege of Praeneste but failed and fled to Africa. [citation needed], Sulla became embroiled in a political fight against one of the plebeian tribunes, Publius Sulpicius Rufus, on the matter of how the new Italian citizens were to be distributed into the Roman tribes for purposes of voting. The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in early summer around the same time the Athenian acropolis was taken. Primary Sources Sallust. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, eyewitness accounts, results of experiments, statistical data, pieces of creative writing, and art objects. Ideally, each ensemble is diverse, both in cultural background and practical experience. Sarah Cooper teaches 8th grade U.S. history and is assistant head for academic life at Flintridge Preparatory School in La Canada, Calif. Sarah is the . [40], In 102BC, the invaders returned and moved to force the Alps. Sulla immediately proscribed 80 persons without communicating with any magistrate. Family members of the proscribed were not excluded from punishment, and slaves were not excluded from rewards. He can hardly have been in any doubt. Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust) was born Amiternum in the country of the Sabines in 86 BC. Historical documents : how to read them. His execution in AD 62 on the orders of emperor Nero made him the last of the Cornelii Sullae. He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history and became the first man of the Republic to seize power through force. Resigning his dictatorship in 79 BC, Sulla retired to private life and died the following year. Threatened by the Pontic navy, Sulla sent his quaestor Lucullus to scrounge about for allied naval forces. [78], When the march on Rome started, the Senate and people were appalled. [40] His prospects for advancement under Marius stalled, however, Sulla started to complain "most unfairly" that Marius was withholding opportunities from him. To do so would mean total humiliation at the hands of his opponents, the end of his political career, and perhaps even further danger to his life. [76][77] They then killed Marcus Gratidius, one of Marius' legates, when Gratidius attempted to effect the transfer of command. He brought Pompeii under siege. Sulla had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. [72] Sulpicius' attempts to push through the Italian legislation again brought him into violent urban conflict, although he "offered nothing to the urban plebs so it continued to resist him". Tip: If you are unsure if a source you have found is primary, talk to your instructor, librarian, or archivist. Primary sources are contrasted with secondary sources, works that provide analysis, commentary, or criticism on the primary source. "[133][134], At the end of 82 BC or the beginning of 81 BC,[135] the Senate appointed Sulla dictator legibus faciendis et reipublicae constituendae causa ("dictator for the making of laws and for the settling of the constitution"). [17], One story, "as false as it is charming", relates that when Sulla was a baby, his nurse was carrying him around the streets, until a strange woman walked up to her and said, "Puer tibi et reipublicae tuae felix", which can be translated as, "The boy will be a source of luck to you and your state". [37], Starting in 104BC, Marius moved to reform the defeated Roman armies in southern Gaul. While Sulla's laws such as those concerning qualification for admittance to the Senate, reform of the legal system and regulations of governorships remained on Rome's statutes long into the principate, much of his legislation was repealed less than a decade after his death. If Sulla hesitated it can only have been because he was not sure how his army would react. Publius Cornelius Rufinus, one of Sulla's ancestors and also the last member of his family to be consul, was banished from the Senate after having been caught possessing more than 10 pounds of silver plate. [42], Victorious, Marius and Catulus were both granted triumphs as the commanding generals. At the same time, Marius had annihilated the Cimbri's allies, the Teutones, at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae. Secondary sources provide second-hand information and commentary from other researchers. "[148][149] Sulla's example proved that it could be done, therefore inspiring others to attempt it; in this respect, he has been seen as another step in the Republic's fall. The later battle, at Orchomenus, was fought in high summer but before the start of the autumn rains. [66] Buttressed by success against Rome's traditional enemies, the Samnites, and general Roman victory across Italy, Sulla stood for and was elected easily to the consulship of 88BC; his colleague would be Quintus Pompeius Rufus. Updated on June 22, 2022 Students. under Gaius Marius in the wars against the Numidian rebel Jugurtha. Cornelius Lucius Sulla; Lucius Cornelius Cinna (elder) Marcus Licinius Crassus; Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) Julius Caesar; Marcus . [146] An epitaph, which Sulla composed himself, was inscribed onto the tomb, reading, "No friend ever served me, and no enemy ever wronged me, whom I have not repaid in full. (5) Horace, Epode (c. 35 BC) [100] The Pontic casualties given in Plutarch and Appian, the main sources for the battles, are exaggerated; Sulla's report that he suffered merely fifteen losses is not credible. [122] Marius, buttressed by Samnite support, fought a long and hard battle with Sulla at Sacriportus that resulted in defeat when five of his cohorts defected. Eyeglasses from Colonial America would be a primary source about Early American History. Sulla raised important cavalry forces for Marius and was responsible for the . [117] Sulla attempted to open negotiations with Norbanus, who was at Capua, but Norbanus refused to treat and withdrew to Praeneste as Sulla advanced. Sulla 5 (L. Cornelius Sulla Felix) - Roman dictator, 82-79 B.C. To this end, he reaffirmed the requirement that any individual wait for 10 years before being re-elected to any office. [112] However, this and Sulla's delay in Asia are "not enough to absolve him of the charge of being more concerned with revenge on opponents in Italy than with Mithridates". [57], The same year, Bocchus paid for the erection of a statue depicting Sulla's capture of Jugurtha. His primary duty was the defeat of Mithridates and the re-establishment of Roman power in the east. This led him to a secret deal with Marius, who had for years been coveting another military command, in which Marius would support Sulpicius' Italian legislation in exchange for a law transferring Sulla's command to Marius. Website. Marius, elected again to the consulship of 101, came to Catulus' aid; Sulla, in charge of supporting army provisioning, did so competently and was able to feed both armies. Sulla (P. Cornelius Sulla) - Roman praetor, 212 B.C. [38] The next year, Sulla was elected military tribune and served under Marius,[39] and assigned to treat with the Marsi, part of the Germanic invaders, he was able to negotiate their defection from the Cimbri and Teutones. [56] When the pro-Italian plebeian tribune Marcus Livius Drusus was assassinated in 91BC while trying again to pass a bill extending Roman citizenship, the Italians revolted. N.S. At the same time, Mithridates attempted to force a land battle in northern Greece, and dispatched a large army across the Hellespont. National Archives Catalog Find online primary source materials for classroom & student projects from the National Archive's online catalog (OPA). "[157] This duality, or inconsistency, made him very unpredictable and "at the slightest pretext, he might have a man crucified, but, on another occasion, would make light of the most appalling crimes; or he might happily forgive the most unpardonable offenses, and then punish trivial, insignificant misdemeanors with death and confiscation of property. This "firsthand" understanding of human motivations and the ordinary Roman citizen may explain why he was able to succeed as a general despite lacking any significant military experience before his 30s.[25]. [106] Roman forces then surrounded the Pontic camp. Some of these historians lived at the time of the events, and therefore, may actually be primary sources, but others, especially Plutarch (CE 45-125), who covers men from multiple eras, lived later than the events they describe. Shortly before Sulla's first consulship, the Romans fought the bloody Social War against their . Newspapers. Studying the past supports good citizenship, which is requisite for a fair and effective democracy. He might have been disinherited, though it was "more likely" that his father simply had nothing to bequeath. [101], Sulla decamped his army from Attica toward central Greece. Sulla was born in a very turbulent era of Rome's history, which has often been described as the beginning of the fall of the Roman Republic.The political climate was marked by civil discord and rampant political violence where voting in the Assembly was . [88] Political violence in Rome continued even in Sulla's absence. Marius was elected consul and, through assignment by tribunician legislation, took over the campaign. Se l'azienda ha pi di 200 dipendenti, deve essere presente anche il rappresentante sindacale aziendale (RSA). He dismissed his lictores and walked unguarded in the Forum, offering to give account of his actions to any citizen. [50][51], In 94BC, Sulla repulsed the forces of Tigranes the Great of Armenia from Cappadocia. [67], Sulla's election to the consulship, successful likely due to his military success in 89BC, was not uncontested. The historian Sallust fleshes out this character sketch of Sulla: He was well versed both in Greek and Roman literature, and had a truly remarkable mind. Marius, in the midst of this military crisis, sought and won repeated consulships, which upset aristocrats in the Senate; they, however, likely acknowledged the indispensability of Marius' military capabilities in defeating the Germanic invaders. In a typical year, the Graduate Acting Department will personally audition more than 800 students in order to select an ensemble of 16 actors. To make primary texts readily available for classroom use, they selected important . [86] He then left Italy with his troops without delay, ignoring legal summons and taking over command from a legate in Macedonia. [127] In the north at the same time, Norbanus was defeated and fled for Rhodes, where he eventually committed suicide. In 46 BC Julius Caesar appointed him governor of the province of Africa. Archelaus tried to break out but were unsuccessful; Sulla then annihilated the Pontic army and captured its camp. If the latter, he may have married into the Julii Caesares. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data, and works of art. Tweet. They were, however, successful in holding Macedonia, then governed by propraetor Gaius Sentius and his legate Quintus Bruttius Sura. A primary source is a first-hand or contemporary account of an event or topic. [96] Rome unsuccessfully defended Delos from an joint invasion by Athens and Pontus. This distinction is important because it will affect how you understand these sources. Sulla then increased the number of magistrates elected in any given year, and required that all newly elected quaestores gain automatic membership in the Senate. But it was from 59, Nero's fifth year as emperor that things started to go seriously . For now, Cinna and the Marian political faction would have to wait, but revenge would prove far deadlier than anything that had come before it. Sulla, himself a patrician, thus ineligible for election to the office of Plebeian Tribune, thoroughly disliked the office. The interest rates were also to be agreed between both parties at the time that the loan was made, and should stand for the whole term of the debt, without further increase. Sulla hurried in full force towards Rome and there fought the Battle of the Colline Gate on the afternoon of 1 November 82BC. This also removed the need for the censor to draw up a list of senators, since more than enough former magistrates were always available to fill the Senate. As a result, "husbands were butchered in the arms of their wives, sons in the arms of their mothers. Primary research gives you direct access to the subject of your research. Pompey ambushed eight legions sent to relieve Praeneste but an uprising from the Samnites and the Lucanians forced Sulla to deploy south as they moved also to relieve Praeneste or join with Carbo in the north. If Sulla had married one of the Julii Caesares, this could explain Marius' willingness to entrust such an important task to a young man with no military experience, as Marius too had married into that family. [97], Early in 87BC, Sulla transited the Adriatic for Thessaly with his five legions. In the decades before Sulla had become dictator, Roman politics became increasingly violent. The Senate moved the senatus consultum ultimum against him and was successful in levying large amount of men and materiel from the Italians. [59], In the first year of fighting, Roman strategy was largely one of containment, attempting to stop the revolting allies from spreading their rebellion into Roman-controlled territory. [22] His first wife was called either Ilia or Julia. [43] Refusing to stand for an aedileship (which, due to its involvement in hosting public games, was extremely expensive), Sulla became a candidate for the praetorship in 99BC. [26] Sulla was assigned by lot to his staff. After the battle, Marius withdrew to Praeneste and was there besieged. An inscription on a sixteenth-century tombstone in Istanbul would be a primary source from the Classical Ottoman Age. He was, however, defeated. [113], Sulla crossed the Adriatic for Brundisium in spring of 83BC with five legions of Mithridatic veterans, capturing Brundisium without a fight. Encyclopedias. The Battle of Sacriportus occurred between the forces of Young Marius and the battle-hardened legions of Sulla. He could acknowledge the law as valid. Killing Cluentius before the city's walls, Sulla then invested the town and for his efforts was awarded a grass crown, the highest Roman military honour. When he was still a proconsul in 82, he planned and executed the proscriptions against his enemies for revenge, especially from the Marian camp, and against rich Romans because he needed money to pay his veterans . Textbook passages discussing specific concepts, events, and experiments. [6] Keaveney places his departure to 93. was a major figure in the late Roman Republic. Lucius Cornelius Sulla (l. 138 - 78 BCE) enacted his constitutional reforms (81 BCE) as dictator to strengthen the Roman Senate's power. Primary Source Terms:. The type of source you look for will depend on the stage you are at in the writing process. [124] The purge did little to strengthen resolve and when Sulla arrived at Rome, the city opened its gates and his opponents fled. Sulla would ratify Mithridates' position in Pontus and have him declared a Roman ally. Sulla and the proscriptions Lucius Cornelius Sulla was consul in 88 BC (and again in 80 BC) and dictator from 82 to 79 BC. At the start of his second consulship in 80BC with Metellus Pius, Sulla resigned his dictatorship. This prophecy was to have a powerful hold on Sulla throughout his lifetime. 106/10 The quaestor L.Sulla arrives at Marius' camp with reinforcements from Sulla marched to Praeneste and forced its siege to a close, with the younger Marius dead from suicide before its surrender. 213/23 P.Cornelius Sulla is chosen to be Flamen Dialis. Continuing towards Scipio's position at Teanum Sidicinum, Sulla negotiated and was almost able to convince Scipio to defect. During these times on the stage, after initially only singing, he started writing plays, Atellan farces, a kind of crude comedy. [48] The Parthian ambassador, Orobazus, was executed upon his return to Parthia for allowing this humiliation; the Parthians, however, ratified the treaty reached, which established the Euphrates as a clear boundary between Parthia and Rome. It was not until he was in his very late forties and almost past the age . [81.3] Magnesia, the only city in Asia that remained loyal, was defended against Mithridates with the greatest courage. Having exhausted available provisions near Athens, doing so was both necessary to ensure the survival of his army and also to relieve a brigade of six thousand men cut off in Thessaly. Sulla also wanted to reduce the risk that a future general might attempt to seize power, as he himself had done. After another attempt to relieve Praeneste failed, Carbo lost his nerve and attempted to retreat to Africa; his lieutenants attempted again to relieve Praeneste but after that again failed, marched on Rome to force Sulla from his well-defended positions. Marius and Sulla are very curious figures in the late Roman Republic. [55] The Cimbric war also revived Italian solidarity, aided by Roman extension of corruption laws to allow allies to lodge extortion claims. Sulla then prohibited ex-tribunes from ever holding any other office, so ambitious individuals would no longer seek election to the tribunate, since such an election would end their political career. Cicero comments that Pompey once said, "If Sulla could, why can't I? Sulla had total control of the city and Republic of Rome, except for Hispania (which Marius' general Quintus Sertorius had established as an independent state). The second was Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who died young. [145], His public funeral in Rome (in the Forum, in the presence of the whole city) was on a scale unmatched until that of Augustus in AD 14. [127] Sulla himself was defeated and forced to flee into his camp, but his lieutenant Crassus on the right wing won the battle in the night. Beyond personal enmity, Caesar Strabo may also have stood for office because it was evident that Rome's relations with the Pontic king, Mithridates VI Eupator, were deteriorating and that the consuls of 88 would be assigned an extremely lucrative and glorious command against Pontus. Or he could attempt to reverse it and regain his command. The constitutional reforms of Sulla were a series of laws enacted by the Roman dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla between 82 and 80 BC, reforming the Constitution of the Roman Republic in a revolutionary way.. He then reinforced this decision by legislation, retroactively justifying his illegal march on the city and stripping the twelve outlaws of their Roman citizenship. Understanding Context: Awareness of the interconnection of events from the past, present and future. [76] The troops were willing to follow Sulla to Rome; his officers, however, realised Sulla's plans and deserted him (except his quaestor and kinsman, almost certainly Lucius Licinius Lucullus). The breakdown allowed Sulla to play the aggrieved party and place blame on his enemies for any further bloodshed. History has portrayed them as being emblematic for a generation of chaos in Roman society. Works of art, in general, are considered primary sources. The Mithridatic War (88 - 85 BC) Normally, candidates had to have first served for ten years in the military, but by Sulla's time, this had been superseded by an age requirement. Sulla, in full Lucius Cornelius Sulla or later Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, (born 138 bcedied 79 bce, Puteoli [Pozzuoli, near Naples, Italy]), victor in the first full-scale civil war in Roman history (88-82 bce) and subsequently dictator (82-79), who carried out notable constitutional reforms in an attempt to strengthen the Roman Republic during the last century of its existence. Sulla was a man to whom, up to victory, sufficient praise can hardly be given, and for whom, after victory, no criticism can be adequate. [107], In the aftermath of the battle, Sulla was approached by Archelaus for terms. This, of course, meant that many cases were never heard at all, as poorer clients did not have the money for the sponsio. His enemy, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, was elected consul for 87BC in place of his candidate;[83] his nephew was rejected as plebeian tribune while Marius' nephew was successful. [108] Adding to his challenges was Lucullus' fleet, reinforced by Rhodian allies. [63] All of these victories would have been won before the consular elections in October 89. primary name: Sulla, Lucius Cornelius other name: Cornelius L f P n Sulla Felix . [68] Shortly after Sulla's election, probably in the last weeks of the year, Sulla married his daughter to one of his colleague Pompeius Rufus' sons. To further solidify the prestige and authority of the Senate, Sulla transferred the control of the courts from the equites, who had held control since the Gracchi reforms, to the senators. the execution of Granius, shortly before his own death). Sulla, who opposed the Gracchian popularis reforms, was an optimate; though his coming to the side of the traditional Senate originally could be described as atavistic when dealing with the tribunate and legislative bodies, while more visionary when reforming the court system, governorships, and membership of the Senate.

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